Friday, September 7, 2012


- The content, application and intent of COLREG 1972.
- Explain factors deciding the composition of the watch on the bridge.
- Explain communication between chief engineer and Master in deciding the composition of engine room 
- Master - Pilot exchange of information.
- Explain IMO ship routeing guide.
- Explain Manoeuvring in and near vessel traffic service (VTS) areas.
- Describe muster list, assignment of duties to personnel, composition of emergency team, drawing of plans 
  to deal with heavy weather damage.
- Describe excessive list, flooding, & bilging, fire in engine room, paint locker, cargo spaces, wheel house 
  and galley, stranding, abandoning ship, spillage of noxious substances, piracy and armed robbery, collision.
- Describe circumstances in which the vessel is to be beached.
- Describe precautions to be taken prior to and after beaching and log book entries.
- Explain actions to be taken if stranding is imminent and after stranding.
- Explain discharging or transferring of weights on board to facilitate refloating.
- Explain control of discharge of harmful substances.
- Explain assessment of damage and control, refloating of stranded ship with & without assistance and log 
  book entries.
- Explain duties of Master following a collision or impairment of the water tight integrity of the hull as per 
- Explain duties of crew members to assist and muster passengers.
- Explain precautions for the protection and the safety of passengers in emergency situations.
- Describe boundary cooling, effect on stability of the vessel caused by use of water to mitigate fire.
- Describe procedure for man entry, procedures for using fixed fire extinguishing system, procedure for 
  rescue of person/s from the space.
- Abandoning Ship:- Explain situations under which to abandon ship, procedure for abandoning a ship.
  Explain preparation on ship prior abandoning a ship, duty of crew and passengers.
  Explain distress call transmission until acknowledgement, mustering of crew and passengers.
  Explain importance of mustering and carrying extra rations, EPIRB, SART and other resources such as 
  blankets etc, Use of distress signal to attract attention, launching of boats and life rafts in heavy weather.
  Explain steps for avoidance of false distress calls, cancellation of false distress alert calls, log book entries.
- Emergency Steering Gear:- Explain change over bridge control to local control in the steering gear 
  compartment, standard emergency procedures, need for proper communication.
- Towing:- Explain the content of emergency towing booklet, emergency towing arrangements, procedure 
  and tools for towing in good and rough weather conditions, Calculation of bollard pull and towing speed 
  prior towage.
- Search and Rescue:- Explain man overboard procedures, precautions in Manoeuvring the ship to be able 
  to launch rescue boats in bad weather.
  Explain contents of IAMSAR Manual Vol 3, various search patterns, role and duties of MRCC, RCC, 
  OSC, recovering a person from the sea in heavy weather.
  Explain action to take when a person is reported missing at sea, log book entries.
- Emergencies in Port:- Explain actions to take when emergencies arises in port (at berth or at anchor) - 
  Fire, Pollution, Approaching Strom, Tsunami, Casualties, Personnel related accidents.
- Piracy or armed robbery:- Explain best management practices (BMP), guidelines provided by Indian 
  authorities. Explain IMB PRC (Piracy Reporting Centre), UKMTO (UK Maritime Trade Organisation), 
  MSCHOA (Maritime Security Centre Horn Of Africa).
- Manoeuvres:- Explain manoeuvres required when approaching a pilot vessel or station with, tide and 
  current, Head Reach, stopping distance and rudder cycling.
- Define shallow water, squat.
- Explain how squat is dependent on speed of the vessel, block coefficient and the width of the channel.
- Explain reduction in under keel clearance resulting from rolling and pitching and heel or list.
- Explain how to round bends in a channel with a current in either direction, taking account of the effect of 
  wind, use of an anchor to assist in rounding a bend, how to turn short round in a narrow channel, with or 
  without a wind and current.
- Calculate the approximate sinkage due to squat.
- Describe use of constant rate of rate and constant radius turn in restricted waters.
- Berthing and Unberthing:- Describe the effect of right and left handed propellers on Manoeuvring, the 
  use of twin screw of Manoeuvring, the advantage and disadvantage of controllable pitch propellers with 
  regards to ship handling.
  Describe the use of lateral thrusters (bow & stern), how an anchor or anchors may be used to assist in 
  manoeuvring, the different ways in which tugs may be made fast and used.
- Explain pivot point and girding of tugs.
- Describe the interaction between a ship and nearby banks (bank cushion and bank suction).
- Describe the interaction between ships when meeting end-on.
- Describe the interaction between ships in an overtaking situation.
- Describe the particulars dangers of interaction when working close by other craft such as tugs.
- Anchoring:- Explain the procedures for anchoring with one or two anchors, factors for deciding the scope 
  of the cable, swinging circle, procedures and precautions taken for anchoring in deep waters.
  Describe running moor, Standing Moor, open Moor, Mediterranean Moor.
- Describe actions taken when vessel starts dragging its anchor(s).
- Describe how to slip anchor(s), foul hawse and methods to clear it.
- Lighterage at sea:- Describe contents of ship to ship transfer guide, lighterage preparations for both 
  vessels, Method of separating on completion of transfer operations.
- Dry-docking:- Describe preparation of repairs list, Hull cleaning, inspection, blasting, painting.
  describe precautions before flooding the dock, Measurement of rudder and propeller drop, Ship's plans, 
  steel renewals and thickness measurements, floating Dry Dock, critical period.
- Heavy Weather:- describe pooping, Broaching to, Synchronous rolling, Parametric rolling, Actions to 
  take to minimize the effect of all these. Explain rolling period in sec.
- Manoeuvring:- Define advance, transfer, tactical Diameter, Track reach, Stopping distance, Turning 
  circle at various draughts and speeds.
  Explain the effect of displacement, draught, trim, speed and under-keel clearance on turning circle and 
  stopping distances. Effect of transverse thrust on turning circle of the ship with right/left handed propeller.
- Ice Navigation:- Define Solid, Soft, Drift and Pack Ice; Growler; Ice berg.
  Explain procedure and precautions to be taken prior entering ice, contents of the Polar code, Master's    
  obligation to report dangerous ice, Cold weather precautions, freezing sprays and steps required to 
  minimize same.
- Bow wave and stern wave:- Explain damage to shore facilities due to excessive bow waves and stern 
  waves, The effects of passing ships on ships moored alongside, precautions that should be taken by ships 
  alongside to minimize the effect of passing traffic
Electronic System Of Position Fixing
- GPS:- Explain working principle, system configuration and frequencies used.
  Describe C/A and P code, How position is determined, contents of navigation message, various DOP's 
  used, Errors and alarms of GPS, accuracy obtainable with GPS and how accuracy can be downgraded.
  WGS 84 datum- why GPS position can not be directly plotted on the navigational chart, Datum shifts, 
  working principle of DGPS and its limitations, Dangers of over reliance on satelite derived positions, IMO  
  Performance Standards.
  Brief outline of GLONASS and GALILEO.
- AIS:- Explain purpose of AIS, limitations of AIS, Precautions during use of AIS for collision avoidance, 
  Pseudo AIS.
  Descibe the principle, frequencies used, types of messages and time intervals, information displayed on AIS 
  screen, IMO performance standards.
- VDR/SVDR:- Explain purpose of VDR, duration of data storage, modules of VDR, saving and retrival of 
  data in case if incidents and training purpose, IMO Performance Standards.
  List data recorded on VDR and SVDR.
- LRIT:- Explain purpose of LRIT, data transmitted by LRIT, authorized receivers of data.
  Describe diffence between LRIT and AIS.
- BNWAS:- Explain Performance standards for BNWAS.
- Rate of Turn Indicator (ROTI):- Describe procedure to executed a constant radius turn with or with out 
  current.Explain the need to monitor the turn, Methods of monitoring the turn, IMO performance Standards.
- Radar plotting exercises with three targets and current and taking action to avoid collision as per Collision 
- Echo Sounder:- Explain basics principle, Effect of density, temperature and pressure on velocity of sound 
  and the limits in which the true value may lie.
  Describe Ranging and Phasing, Inaccuracies of equipment, scale error and measures to eliminate them.
  Describe false echoes, errors due to Trim, List & positioning, Various alarms and settings, IMO 
  performance standards.
- Speed Log:- Explain the difference between ground reference and water reference speed. IMO 
  Performance Standards. 
- Doppler speed log:- Describe principle, Janus configuration, Dual axis configuration and its uses during 
  docking operations, calibrations of the log, the limitations, the errors of doppler log.
- Course Recorder:- Explain setting of course Recorder, Information to be recorded on the course 
  recorder by the operator, alarms of course recorder. 
- Auto Pilot:- Explain the principle, Various setting of the auto-pilot for optimal performance, the 
  procedures and factors to take into account for change over, Adaptive automatic pilot systems and its 
  functions, various alarms, The need for regular checking and test of auto pilot, The regulations regarding the 
  use of auto pilot.
- Magnetic Compass Error and Correction:- Explain earth as a magnet, Ship's permanent magnetic field 
  components P, Q and R, Induced Magnetism, Principles of Magnetic compass, Method of compensating 
  effect of P,Q and R, Method of compensating effect of induced magnetism, why a deviation curve made in  
  one hemisphere and position cannot be used in the other hemisphere.
  Describe method of obtaining table of deviation/ deviation curve.
- Gyro Compass Error and Corrections:- Calculate error on gyro compass given latitude, speed, course 
  steered and ratio between control and damping process.
- List the equipment getting heading inputs from gyro compass, outline the performance standards of gyro 

- Marine Engineering terms:- Define Mass, Force, Work, Power, Energy, Stress, Strain, Heat, Efficiency 
  of a machine, Indicated power, Propeller power and thrust.
- Fuel consumption:- Define Admiralty coefficient, Fuel coefficient, Thermal Efficiency, Specific Fuel 
  Explain effect of condition of hull, tips of propeller on fuel coefficient, fuel consumption and propeller 
  Describe Indicator diagrams and the information obtained.
  Calculate Power output from indicator diagrams, Daily consumption at service speed, bunker fuel required 
  for the voyage, speed for a given daily consumption, speed required to complete a voyage with given 
- Auxiliary Boiler:- Describe water tube boiler, fire tube boiler, exhaust gas boiler, importance of 
  maintaining correct water level and function of safety valve.
  Distinguish between water tube and fire tube boiler, describe the procedure of flashing the boiler from cold.
  Effect of salts in boiler feed water and procedure for treatment of feed water.
- Distillation and fresh water system:- Explain with sketch as necessary principle of operation of a low 
  pressure fresh water generator, Principle reverse osmosis, Hydrophore system for domestic water supply, 
  drinking water treatment.
- Pumps and pumping systems:- Describe with sketch the principle of working of reciprocating pump/ 
  Gear pump/ Screw pump/ Centrifugal pump, Fire pumps, Emergency fire pump and its pumping 
  Describe typical bilge system of a ship, typical ballast system of a ship.
- Steering Gear:- Describe with sketch ram type hydraulic steering gear, rotary vane steering gear, 
  Electrical steering gear, tele motor system, Fail safe arrangement.
  State IMO requirements for auxiliary steering gear, IMO requirement for testing steering gears, 
  requirements for emergency control.
- Generator, Alternators and electrical distribution:- Explain operation of an alternator, electrical 
  distribution systems, use of circuit breaker & fuses, Procedure for maintenance of batteries, operation of 
  emergency compressor, purpose and operation of purifiers.
  Describe with sketch, Navigation light circuit with indicators/ alarm and alternative power supply.
  List services to be supplied from Emergency generator, Describe procedure for starting emergency 
  generator manually.
- Refrigeration, air-conditioning and ventilation:- State properties of a refrigerant.
  Describe with sketch simple refrigeration cycle for domestic refrigeration and cargo spaces.
  Working principle of air conditioning plant.
- Stabilisers:- Describe construction and operation of fin stabiliser.
- Sewage treatment plants:- Describe with sketch operation of chemical and biological treatment plant.
- Oily-water Separators and oil filtering equipment:- Describe with sketch construction and operation of 
  oily water separator and ODMCS.
- Incinerator:- Draw block diagram for the operation of a waste incinerator.
- Deck machinery:- Explain advantages and disadvantages of steam, electric and hydraulic drive for 
  winches.Describe routine maintenance including lubrication of deck machinery, Describe with sketch 
  windlass drive system. 
- Hydraulic system:- describe Hydraulic accumulator, ram and rotary vane actuators, common failures of 
  system and remedial measures. State necessity for cooling/ heating of hydraulic oil.
- Diesel Engines:- Describe working principle of two stroke and four stroke internal combustion engines.
  Compare and contrast, Two stroke and four stroke internal combustion engines.
  Explain causes of Scavenges fires and remedial actions, Causes of Crankcase explosions, super charging.
  Describe preparation of diesel engine for Standby mode, procedure for starting and reversing.
  State number of starts is limited by capacity of starting air reservoir.
  Draw a block diagram of fuel oil system from bunker tank to injection, lubricating oil system, cooling water 
- Steam turbine system:- Explain working principle of, impulse turbine, reaction turbine.
  Describe steam turbine and its bearing, procedure for warming through a steam turbine for manoeuvring, 
  procedure for manoeuvring using a steam turbine (forward & astern).
- Propeller and propeller shaft:- Define pitch, slip and efficiency of a propeller.
  Calculate percentage apparent slip, real slip, Ship's speed given rpm, mean pitch and percentage slip, 
  Indicated power, shaft power, delivered power and effective power.
  Explain how propeller thrust is transmitted to the hull, how propeller shaft is supported, how propeller is 
  secured to tail shaft.
  Describe operation of a controllable pitch propeller.
- Bridge Control:- Describe with block diagram of control systems for main Engine and bridge control of 
  controllable pitch propeller.
  List indicators and alarm provided with bridge control, indicators for lateral thrusters.
  Explain arrangements and operation of lateral thrusters, main engine starting arrangement, purpose of 
  turbocharger and need to control rpm whilst carrying out turbocharger washing.
- Engine room watch keeping:- Describe arrangement necessary for appropriate and effective engineering 
  watches to be maintained for the purpose of safety under normal circumstances and UMS operations.
  Describe arrangements necessary to ensure a safe engineering watch is maintained when carrying dangerous 


- Introduction to Maritime Law.
  amended) Territorial sea and the contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf,   
  International straits, High seas.
- International Convention on Load Lines, 1966:- Describe requirements for initial and periodical 
  surveys,requirements for periodical inspections.
  List fittings and appliances to be inspected, circumstance in which LLC would be cancelled, contents of 
  record of conditions of assignment of freeboard.
- International Convention for the Safety of Life at sea, 1974 as amended (SOLAS):- Describe 
  procedure for testing of ship's steering gear, change over procedure for remote steering gear, requirements 
  for emergency steering drills, general requirements for carriage of navigational equipments.
  List the chapters of SOLAS and brief outline of the contents as covered therein, log book entries to be 
  made regarding steering gear and emergency drills, the amendments to SOLAS (within last three years).
- International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 
  (STCW) as amended:- Explain 2010 Manila amendments to STCW 78.
- Explain Aims, objectives and general provisions of the Convention for the suppression of unlawful act 
  against the Safety of Maritime Navigation 1988 as amended.
- Explain Aims and objectives of the regulations, ITU Radio Regulations.
- Explain contents and purpose of MARPOL, OPA - 90, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination system 
  (NPDES) of the U.S Clean water Act.
- Explain particularly sea sensitive areas, discharge provisions for oil and oily waste from machinery spaces 
  outside special areas and within special area.
- Describe content of SOPEP, Vessel Response Plan (VRP), Notification procedures as per SOPEP and 
- Describe Entries to be made in OIL Record Book (Part 1, Machinery Space Operations) and Part ll ( 
  cargo and ballast operations).
- Describe need to maintain records, contents and validity of IOPP certificate and annexures.
- Explain contents of MARPOL Annex ll, Chemical discharge criteria in special and other areas, need to 
  maintain records, entries to be made in cargo record book for chemical cargoes, SMPEP.
- State notification procedure for loading/unloading harmful substances as per MARPOL Annex lll.
- Explain discharge criteria for Sewage (Annex lV), Holding tanks, Nearest land, Contents and validity of 
  ISPP certificate and annexures).
- Explain (with regards to annex V) special areas, discharge criteria, Garbage management plan, entries in 
  Garbage record book, need for maintaining records.
- Explain (with regards to ballast water management):-  Ballast water management plan, need for maintaining 
  records, ballast water management convention.
- Describe (with regards to Annex lV) SECA (Sulphur Emission Control area), Volatile Organic 
  Compounds (VOC) managements plan, Contents and validity of IAPP certificate and annexures.
- London Dumping Convention (LDC):- Define dumping, waste or other matters, special permit, general 
  permit. Explain Aims of the convention.
- Intervention convention:- Define Maritime casualty, Related Interests. Describe the rights of parties to 
  intervene on high seas.
- Civil Liability convention (CLC) and Fund Convention:- Define Pollution damage, Incident. State 
  Exceptions to liability & Limitations to liability.
- Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response & Co-operation Convention (OPRC) as amended (OPRC - 
  HNS Protocol):- Explain Aims, objectives and general provisions of the convention. Explain reporting 
  incidents. Explain need for prompt reporting & probability of discharge.
- Passengers:- Explain special trade passenger ships agreement, protocol and rules on space requirements 
  for special trade passenger ships, 1973, General provisions of Athens Convention relating to the carriage of 
  Passengers and their luggage by Sea.
- International Convention On Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969 as amended:- Define Gross 
  Tonnage, net Tonnage, Excluded space. List the information available in International Tonnage Certificate.
- ILO Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) - 2006:- 
  a) Minimum requirements for seafarers to work on ships: minimum age, medical certificates, training and 
      qualification, requirements and placement.
  b) Conditions of Employment: Seafarers Employment Agreements, Wages, Hours of Work and Hours of 
      Rest, Entitlement to leave, Repatriation, Seafarer compensation for the ship's loss or Foundering, 
      Manning Levels, careers and skill development and opportunities for seafarer's employment.
  c) Accommodation, Recreation Facilities, Food and Catering.
  d) Health Protection, Medical Care, Welfare & Social Security Protection: Medical care on-board ship 
      and ashore, Ship-owners Liability, Health & Safety Protection and Accident Prevention, Access to 
      Shore-based Welfare Facilities, Social Security.
  e) Compliance and Enforcement.
  i) Flag State Responsibilities: General Principles, Authorization of recognized Organizations, Maritime 
     Labour Certificate and Declaration of Maritime Labour Compliance, Inspection and Enforcement, On-
     board Complaint Procedures, Marine Casualties.
ii)  Port State Responsibilities: Inspection in port, Detailed inspection, Detection, On-shore Seafarer    
    Complaint, Handling Procedures.
iii) Labour supplying Responsibilities: Recruitment and Placement services, Social security provisions.
- International Health Regulations (IHR):- Define Arrival of Ship, Baggage, Container, Crew, 
  Epidemic, Free pratique, In quarantine, International voyage.
  Define Requirements of Ship Sanitation/ ship sanitation Exemption Certificate, MAster's obligation 
  concerning maritime declaration of health.
- Convention on facilitation of International Maritime traffic, (FAL 1965):- State the purpose of the 
  convention, IMO Standard forms for general declaration, cargo declaration, ship's and crew effect 
  declaration, crew list and passenger list.
  List the documents for arrival or departure of ships.
  Explain Standard and Recommended practices regarding documentation under FAL convention.
- Noting protests:- Explain note of protest, conditions in which Note of Protest is to be filed, Extended 
  Note of Protest.
- Collision:- Describe duties of Master after collision, Explain apportionment of Liability, State convention 
  applies where even no collision has taken place.
- International Salvage Convention:- Define salvage, Vessel, Property. Describe No cure-No Pay 
  principle, Application of convention, Duties of Salvor, Owner and Master, Right of Salvor.
  Explain criteria for assessing reward, criteria for assessing special compensation (SCOPIC Clause), 
  Apportionment of the remuneration.
- Explain The contents and clauses of Lloyd's Standard Form of Salvage Agreement (LOF).
- Convention on Limitation of Liability for maritime Claims:- State scope of application of convention.
  List persons entitled to limit liability, claims subject to limitation of liability, claims exempted from limitation, 
  circumstances in which limitation would be barred.Describe constitution of a limitation fund.
- Classification Societies:- State the role of IACS, Repairs/ Alterations must be carried out under surveys 
  and to satisfaction of class. Explain reasons for having ship's classed, special survey requirements, role of 
  classification society. State that periodical surveys ard annual surveys, dry docking, intermediate and special 
- Cargo:- Define carrier, contract of carriage,goods, ship,carriage of goods.
  List Duties of Carrier, Information to be shown on Bill of Lading, Exceptions to carrier's responsibility for 
  loss or damage.
  Explain Bill of Lading as evidence of contract, Shipper's responsibility for loss or damage, Limitations of  
  Describe Scope of application of convention, system of documentary credit.
  State Right to Deviate, Burden of proving due diligence is on the carrier.
- Charter-Parties:- State Charter party is a contract, charter party drawn using standard forms.
  Explain Voyage Charter party, Time Charter party, Demise or Bare boat charter party, Tonnage contract  
  or Contract of Affreightment.
  Explain (with regards to Hamburg Rules) Effect of charges for goods carried under hamburg rules.
- The York-Antwerp Rule:- Define General Average Act and general Average Sacrifice.
  Explain duties of Master in GA, Rights to contribution in GA.
- Marine Insurance:- Explain purpose of Marine Insurance, Insurable interest, Utmost good faith, 
  Misrepresentation or non-disclosure, Warranty, Deviation, Institute clauses, Particular Average, 
  Subrogation, Partial loss, Total loss, Constructive total loss, Functions of P and I clubs. Risks, liabilities and 
  expenses by P and I clubs.
  Describe voyage policy, time policy, floating policy, perils covered in insurance.
- List Certificate carried on board ships by International conventions and their periods of validity. Documents 
  to be carried on board.
- General provisions of Merchant Shipping Act and brief outline of Rules made there under.


- Define tensile Strength, ductility, Hardness, Toughness, Yield Point, Ultimate tensile stress, Modules of 
  Elasticity, Stress/Brittle/Fatigue Fracture, Mild steel, Strain.
- Explain with Stress and Strain curve.
- Explain Advantages of use of aluminium alloys, Use of higher tensile steel and hazards associated with 
  them, How aluminium superstructure strength is preserved.
  List examples where castings or forgings are used.
  State Ship building steel is tested, graded and stamped with approval marks.
  Describe Precautions against corrosion where aluminium is connected to steel work.
- Explain General layout of a ship yard and co-operation between department with block diagrams.
- Describe and sketch sheer plan, half breadth plan, body plan.
- Describe various tests for ship building steel.
- Explain conditions of Assignment of freeboard.
- Define Margin line, Forward and aft perpendicular, LBP, Sub divisional load lines, minimum bow height, 
  factor of sub-division, Garboard and Sheer strake.
- Explain Multiple load lines, Type A and Type B ships.
- List Items to be inspected during annual, periodical and renewal surveys.
- Explain Gross tonnage, Net tonnage, Exclude spaces, Enclosed spaces.
- Calculate Gross tonnage, Net tonnage.
- Explain Floodable length, permissible length and sub division load line.
- Explain Types of bulkheads and standard fire tests.
- Sketch and label mid ship section of following ships: general cargo ship, cellular container ship, hatch cover 
  less cellular container vessel, Bulk carrier, Double hull oil tanker, Chemical tanker, LPG carrier, LNG 
  carrier, OBO vessel, Ro-Ro Vessel.


- Moment of Inertia calculations:- Explain Theorem of parallel axis.
  Calculate Moment of Inertia of Rectangular and curvi-linear surface (using vertical or horizontal ordinates) 
  about a stated axis.
  Calculate BML and BMof a ship given ordinates of water plane area, KM of a vessel in a floating dry-
  dock after taking to the blocks.
- Thrust due to liquid pressure:- Define Centre of pressure and Thrust.
  Calculate Centre of pressure and thrust of rectangular and curvi-linear surface (using vertical or horizontal 
  ordinates) at a stated liquid level.
- State (i)  GZ = GM sin 0 for angles of heel up to 10
          (ii) GZ =  (GM + ½ BM tan20) sin 0 for angles of heel greater than 10
          (iii) BM = i/V 
          (iv) KM = KB + BM
- Define Rolling period.
- Explain Procedure to determine Ship Stability by means of rolling period test, Limitations of the Rolling 
  period test.
- Calculate approximate GM by means of rolling period tests.
- Explain procedures of carrying out inclining test and calculation of KG.
- Describe procedure to determine initial KG of the ship by Inclining Test, procedure to be taken while 
  carrying out Inclining test. Calculate Initial KG given inclining test data.
- Recommendation on intact stability for passenger and cargo ships (IMO Intact Stability Code 2008): 
  Explain precautions against capsizing, intact and damage stability criteria for passenger and cargo ships. 
  Stability information available in hydrostatic tables.
- Describe IMO severe wind and weather heeling criteria, Heel while turning.
- Explain effect of GM on rolling, effect of draught and displacement on rolling, function of bilge keels, anti-
  rolling tanks and stabilizer fins to reduce the amplitude of rolling.
- Explain conditions under which parametric or synchronous rolling occurs.
- Explain Parametric rolling and action to be taken to mitigate. Synchronous rolling and actions to be taken to 
- Explain Shear force, bending moment Load, How wave profile effects shear force and bending moment.
  Explain Wave and cargo induced Torsional stress, Maximum Permissible Torsional moments.
- Calculate Shear force and bending moments, at stated stations.
- Draw Shear forces and bending moment curve for above calculations.
- Explain Margin Line, Permeability of a space and cargo.
- Explain Loss of Buoyancy of a bilged compartment = volume regained, how area of intact water plane is 
  reduced, Effect of flooding on transverse stability.
- Calculate stability of the ship after bilging of a mild ship compartment, List of the ship after bilging of a mild 
  ship side compartment (with or without permeability). (All calculations to be based on box shaped vessels).
- Explain effect of flooding on trim.
- Calculate Final Fore and Aft drafts after bilging of end/ intermediate compartments (with or without 
- Calculate Stability of the ship after bilging of end compartments (with or without permeability)